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[[Category:Guided Tutorials]]
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<. [[Guided_Tutorial_Introduction|Previous: Introduction]]
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>. [[Guided_Tutorial_GNU_Radio_in_Python|Next: Programming GNU Radio in Python]]
  
 
= Tutorial: GNU Radio Companion =
 
= Tutorial: GNU Radio Companion =
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* Basic knowledge of git
 
* Basic knowledge of git
* [[InstallingGR|GNU Radio 3.8.0.0 or later]]
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* [[InstallingGR|GNU Radio 3.7.4 or later]]
* [[Guided_Tutorial_Introduction|A brief introduction to GNU Radio, SDR, and DSP]]
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* [[Guided_Tutorial_Introduction|Tutorial 1: Intro to GNU Radio]]
  
  
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We have seen in Tutorial 1 that GNU Radio is a collection of tools that can be used to develop radio systems in software as opposed to completely in hardware. In this tutorial, we start off simple and explore how to use the GNU Radio Companion (GRC), GNU Radio's graphical tool, to create different tones. We should keep in the back of our mind that GRC was created to simplify the use of GNU Radio by allowing us to create python files graphically as opposed to creating them in code alone (we will discuss this more later).
 
We have seen in Tutorial 1 that GNU Radio is a collection of tools that can be used to develop radio systems in software as opposed to completely in hardware. In this tutorial, we start off simple and explore how to use the GNU Radio Companion (GRC), GNU Radio's graphical tool, to create different tones. We should keep in the back of our mind that GRC was created to simplify the use of GNU Radio by allowing us to create python files graphically as opposed to creating them in code alone (we will discuss this more later).
  
The first thing to cover is the interface. There are five parts: <span style="color:gray">Library</span>, <span style="color:red">Toolbar</span>, <span style="color:green">Terminal</span>, <span style="color:blue">Workspace</span> and <span style="color:yellow"> variables.
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The first thing to cover is the interface. There are four parts: <span style="color:gray">Library</span>, <span style="color:red">Toolbar</span>, <span style="color:green">Terminal</span>, and <span style="color:blue">Workspace</span>.
  
 
[[File:unity-2d-shell_008.png|600px|]]
 
[[File:unity-2d-shell_008.png|600px|]]
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=== Modifying Block Properties ===
 
=== Modifying Block Properties ===
  
The workspace (main area of the screen) contains all of our blocks that make up our flowgraph, and inside each block we can see all the different block parameters. There is, however, one special block that each new flowgraph starts with and is required to have, called the '''Options Block'''.  Let us double-click on the Options Block to examine its properties. We see a window as below:
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The workspace contains the flowgraph and all the different options for various block parameters. Let us double-click on the '''Options Block''' to examine its properties. We see a window as below:
  
 
[[File:properties_options.png|400px|]]
 
[[File:properties_options.png|400px|]]
  
These block properties can be changed from the defaults to accomplish different tasks. Let's remove part of the current name and notice the <span style="color:red">ID turns blue</span>. This color means that the information has been edited, but has not been saved. If we go back to the '''Options Block''' properties, we can see that <span style="background:yellow">there are different tabs and one is titled documentation</span>.
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These block properties can be changed from the defaults to accomplish different tasks. Let's remove part of the current name and notice the <span style="color:red">ID turns blue</span>. This color means that the information has been edited, but has not been saved. Let us <span style="color:green">change the parameter '''Window Size''' to &quot;300,300&quot;</span> and click OK. Yikes! Almost all the workspace got cutoff! Let's do a ctrl+z to go back to our default size. If we go back to the '''Options Block''' properties, we can see that <span style="background:yellow">there are different tabs and one is titled documentation</span>.
  
 
[[File:id_python.png|400px|]]
 
[[File:id_python.png|400px|]]
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So now let's remove the entire ID string. Notice now that at the bottom appears an <span style="color:red">error message.</span> Also notice that the <span style="color:red">parameter '''ID''' is now red</span> to show us exactly where the error occured.
 
So now let's remove the entire ID string. Notice now that at the bottom appears an <span style="color:red">error message.</span> Also notice that the <span style="color:red">parameter '''ID''' is now red</span> to show us exactly where the error occured.
  
To keep things organized, let us change the '''ID''' to &quot;tutorial_two_1&quot;. Let us also make sure that the property '''Generate Options''' is set to &quot;QT GUI&quot; since we are using a graphical sink. The '''ID''' field allows us to more easily manage our file space. While we save the GRC flowgraph as a <filename>.grc, generating and executing this flowgraph produces another output. GRC is a graphical interface that sits on top of the normal GNU Radio programming environment that is in Python. GRC translates the flowgraph we create in the GUI canvas here into a Python script, so when we execute a flowgraph, we are really running a Python program. The '''ID''' is used to name that Python file, saved into the same directory as the .grc file. By default, the '''ID''' is '''default''' and so it creates a file called '''default.py'''. Changing the '''ID''' allows us to change the saved file name for better file management. In GNUradio 3.8 you will get an error if you don't change the default id, so you need to change this id in order to run the flowgraph.
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To keep things organized, let us change the '''ID''' to &quot;tutorial_two_1&quot;. Let us also make sure that the property '''Generate Options''' is set to &quot;QT GUI&quot; since we are using a QT GUI sink and not a WX GUI sink. Newer versions of GNU Radio default to using QT GUI. The '''ID''' field allows us to more easily manage our file space. While we save the GRC flowgraph as a <filename>.grc, generating and executing this flowgraph produces another output. GRC is a graphical interface that sits on top of the normal GNU Radio programming environment that is in Python. GRC translates the flowgraph we create in the GUI canvas here into a Python script, so when we execute a flowgraph, we are really running a Python program. The '''ID''' is used to name that Python file, saved into the same directory as the .grc file. By default, the '''ID''' is '''top_block''' and so it creates a file called '''top_block.py'''. Changing the '''ID''' allows us to change the saved file name for better file management.
  
 
Another result of this GRC-Python connection is that GRC is actually all Python. In fact, all entry boxes in block properties or variables that we use are interpreted as Python. That means that we can set properties using Python calls, such as calling a numpy or other GNU Radio functions. A common use of this is to call into the '''filter.firdes''' filter design tool from GNU Radio to build our filter taps.
 
Another result of this GRC-Python connection is that GRC is actually all Python. In fact, all entry boxes in block properties or variables that we use are interpreted as Python. That means that we can set properties using Python calls, such as calling a numpy or other GNU Radio functions. A common use of this is to call into the '''filter.firdes''' filter design tool from GNU Radio to build our filter taps.
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This section of the interface contains commands present in most software such as new, open, save, copy, paste. Let's begin by saving our work so far and titling our flow graph '''tutorial_two'''. Important tools here are <span style="color:blue">'''Generate''' flowgraph,</span> <span style="color:red">'''Execute''' flowgraph,</span> and '''Kill''' flowgraph all accessible through F5, F6, and F7 respectively. A good reference is available in '''Help'''-&gt;'''Types''' that shows the color mapping of types which we will look into later.
 
This section of the interface contains commands present in most software such as new, open, save, copy, paste. Let's begin by saving our work so far and titling our flow graph '''tutorial_two'''. Important tools here are <span style="color:blue">'''Generate''' flowgraph,</span> <span style="color:red">'''Execute''' flowgraph,</span> and '''Kill''' flowgraph all accessible through F5, F6, and F7 respectively. A good reference is available in '''Help'''-&gt;'''Types''' that shows the color mapping of types which we will look into later.
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=== A Note on Generate Options ===
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Let us click the '''Generate''' button and turn our eyes to the Terminal at the bottom of the window. We should see it generated a Python file with the same name as the '''ID''' from our '''Options Block'''. The terminal displays important messages such as errors and warnings. Two common errors are when we mismatch the generate options with the graphical tools we are using. For instance, if we were to use the WX GUI as our generate options but have a QT GUI graphic then we would get in the terminal:
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[[File:wxgen_qtflow.png|600px|]]
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And if we were to use the QT GUI generate options with a WX GUI graphic we would get in the terminal:
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[[File:qtgen_wxflow.png|600px|]]
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It should be noted that we are doing away with WX GUI in future releases so only use QT GUI.
  
 
=== Examining the Output ===
 
=== Examining the Output ===
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We now see our sine wave on one channel. We can click on the screen and move the mouse to zoom and rescale.
 
We now see our sine wave on one channel. We can click on the screen and move the mouse to zoom and rescale.
  
== A More Complex Flowgraph ==
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== Using the Companion ==
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Now that we are able to create flowgraphs on our own, we should explore some of the useful features in GNU Radio. Let's begin with the flowgraph below:
  
Now that we are able to create flowgraphs on our own, lets try creating a more complicated flowgraph with many specific parameters.  This example flowgraph demonstrates many new concepts in GNU Radio like using tabbed windows and QT GUI Ranges.  Note that not all block parameters are displayed in the main window, so use the text below (not just the screenshot) to set the parameters of each block.
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=== Time &amp; Frequency Flowgraph ===
  
 
[[File:tutorial_two_3.png|600px|tutorial_two_3.grc]]
 
[[File:tutorial_two_3.png|600px|tutorial_two_3.grc]]
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Detailed Changes:<br />
 
Detailed Changes:<br />
 
<span style="color:gray">- We are starting a new flowgraph with '''ID''' &quot;tutorial_two_3&quot;</span><br />
 
<span style="color:gray">- We are starting a new flowgraph with '''ID''' &quot;tutorial_two_3&quot;</span><br />
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<span style="background:yellow">- In '''QT GUI Tab Widget''', '''ID''' to &quot;tab&quot;, '''Num Tabs''' to 2, '''Label 0''' to &quot;Time&quot;, '''Label 1''' to &quot;Frequency&quot;</span><br />
 
<span style="color:blue">- In '''QT GUI Range''', '''ID''' to &quot;samp_rate&quot;, '''Default Value''' to &quot;5*freq&quot;, '''Start''' to &quot;0.5*freq&quot;, '''Stop''' to &quot;20*freq&quot;, '''Step''' to &quot;200&quot;</span><br />
 
<span style="color:blue">- In '''QT GUI Range''', '''ID''' to &quot;samp_rate&quot;, '''Default Value''' to &quot;5*freq&quot;, '''Start''' to &quot;0.5*freq&quot;, '''Stop''' to &quot;20*freq&quot;, '''Step''' to &quot;200&quot;</span><br />
 
<span style="color:green">- In '''Variable''', '''ID''' to &quot;freq&quot;, '''Value''' to &quot;2e3&quot;</span><br />
 
<span style="color:green">- In '''Variable''', '''ID''' to &quot;freq&quot;, '''Value''' to &quot;2e3&quot;</span><br />
 
<span style="color:purple">- In '''Signal Source''', '''Frequency''' to &quot;freq&quot;, '''Waveform''' to &quot;Sine&quot;</span><br />
 
<span style="color:purple">- In '''Signal Source''', '''Frequency''' to &quot;freq&quot;, '''Waveform''' to &quot;Sine&quot;</span><br />
</span><br />
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<span style="color:red">- In '''QT GUI Time Sink''', '''GUI Hint''' to &quot;tab@0&quot;. In '''QT GUI Frequency Sink''', '''GUI Hint''' to &quot;tab@1&quot;</span><br />
 
- In '''Throttle''', '''Sample Rate''' to 32e3 (more on why later)
 
- In '''Throttle''', '''Sample Rate''' to 32e3 (more on why later)
  
Once we have verified our changes, let's '''Generate''', and '''Execute'''. It should produce a window that has two tabs, one showing the time domain and one showing the frequency domain. There should also be a slider at the bottom to control the sample rate (of the signal source) in realtime. Changing this slider should change the observed frequency in the time and frequency sinks.
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Once we have verified our changes, let's '''Generate''', and '''Execute'''. We should produce the figure below:
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Sampling rate is an interesting subject in GNU Radio -- and, indeed, any software radio platform. Please see the [[Guided_Tutorial_Extras_Sample_Rates|Extras on Sampling Rate]] page that explores how changing the sample rates in the above flowgraph affects the signals.
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== How to Use INSERT_BLOCK_NAME_HERE ==
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There are many ways to display multiple graphs. For instance, if we have a big screen, we could use the [GNURadioCompanion#Example Grid Position notation] present in the '''GUI Hint''' property or we can make our sinks have multiple inputs. There are multiple ways to change variables such as the '''Chooser'''. There are different ways to display signals such as the '''Waterfall Sink'''. Now that we have the basics, we can approach any block, look at its documentation, and figure out how to use it.
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=== Examining the Probe Signal Block ===
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For instance, let's go over a question that was asked on the mailing list on how to use the '''Probe Signal''' block. We can see its properties below:
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[[File:probe_properties.png|400px|]]
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And its documentation:
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[[File:probe_documentation.png|400px|]]
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First, let's give this guy an <span style="color:red">'''ID''', let's do &quot;probe_signal&quot;</span> and change the <span style="color:blue">'''Input Type''' to &quot;Float&quot;</span>. If we look at the <span style="color:green">documentation, we can see that the functions of the block are &quot;level&quot;</span> and that it <span style="background:yellow">needs to be used with the '''Function Probe''' block.</span> So let's put down a '''Function Probe''' block and examine its properties.
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[[File:fxn_probe_properties.png|400px|]]
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And its documentation:
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[[File:fxn_probe_documentation.png|400px|]]
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First, we should give it an <span style="color:red">'''ID''', let's do &quot;probe_var&quot;</span>. If we look at the <span style="color:purple">documentation, it tells us that '''Block ID''' should be '''ID''' of another block in the flowgraph.</span> In this case, the <span style="color:blue">'''ID''' of our '''Probe Signal''' block which is &quot;probe_signal&quot;</span>. It also says, '''Function Name''' should be the name of a class method on the '''Probe Signal''' block. We know the documentation of the <span style="color:green">'''Probe Signal''' block told us its function was &quot;level&quot;</span> so let's put that there. The '''Function Args''' are the parameters passed into the function. Recalling the previous documentation, the function was &quot;level();&quot; therefore, no arguments are passed to it.
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=== Displaying Text Based Information ===
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If we run the flowgraph, we notice that nothing happens, so we need a way to display the data. We can't really use a sink in this case because the '''Probe Signal''' block is already a sink. Instead, let's look at the available options for display blocks when we search &quot;qt&quot;.
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[[File:probe_search.png|250px|]]
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We see that there are a bunch of sinks, which again we cannot use in this case. That leaves us with the GUI Widgets which are six options. But we know that <span style="color:red">four of them sound like inputs</span> and so don't make much sense (though we can use them if you remember to experiment!). <span style="color:blue">That leaves '''QT GUI Entry''' and '''QT GUI Label'''</span> and either will display the data if we simply change the '''Default Value''' to the '''ID''' of our '''Function Probe''' block which is &quot;probe_var&quot;. Result is below:
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[[File:tutorial_two_5.png|600px|tutorial_two_5.grc]]
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=== A Note on the Throttle Block ===
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Before we delve further, we need to discuss the '''Throttle Block''' we used in all of our flowgraphs. Below is a comparison on System Monitor that shows running the sine wave flowgraph <span style="color:green">with throttle</span> and <span style="color:blue">without throttle</span>.
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[[File:throttle.png|600px|]]
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As we can see, not using a throttle block and not connected to hardware forces our CPU to run at full speed! We always use a throttle when not connected to hardware. And we only need one throttle block in the entire flowgraph even if we have multiple sources/sinks. We can think of the throttle block as the speed limit: higher rate means our flowgraph goes faster while slower rate means it goes slower. If we change the throttle sample rate to something really high like 1e6 then we can open up our system monitor again and see that our CPU works a lot harder than it does at 48e3. On the other hand hardware imposes a restriction on the throughput therefore it requires no throttle block. Again, we never use a throttle block when connected to hardware.
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<pre>if hardware:
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    do_not_use_throttle
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else:
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    use_one_throttle</pre>
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=== Sampling Rate Mismatch ===
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Now that we have introduced hardware which requires certain sampling rates to function properly, we can go over an example with sampling rate mismatch. Let's build the following flowgraph:
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[[File:tutorial_two_6.png|600px|tutorial_two_6.grc]]
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<span style="color:red">- Configuring the Chooser to allow three different values for the sampling rate of the signal. Though the image shows the third value as 16 kHz, make that 160 kHz instead.</span><br />
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<span style="color:blue">- All the sources have the '''Sampling Rate''' as '''samp_rate'''</span><br />
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<span style="color:purple">- '''audio_rate''' set to &quot;48000&quot;</span><br />
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- All the sinks (audio, time, frequency) have the sampling rate as audio_rate
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We can see that there is no throttle block. We can also notice that we are keeping the audio sample rate as a variable therefore it can not be changed while the flowgraph is running. This is because the xml file doesn't have the appropriate callback to support this (more on callbacks in tutorial 3).
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If we run the flowgraph with a sample rate of 48000 we can hear the familiar sound of a phone dailtone and see that the frequency on the fft is indeed at 440Hz and 350Hz.
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[[File:sampling_mismatch.png|600px|sampling_mismatch.grc]]
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No more dialtone. The soundcard receives higher frequency signals<br />
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No more dialtone. The soundcard receives lower frequency signals<br />
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It's important to ensure that sample rates always match otherwise we will be working with frequency scaled versions of our data! More info on sampling rates is available on the [FAQ#What-does-sample-rate-mean-in-GNU-Radio FAQ]
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== Conclusion ==
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And that is it for now with GRC. Let us know your thoughts before going on to the [https://wiki.gnuradio.org/index.php/Guided_Tutorial_GNU_Radio_in_Python python] tutorial.
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=== Some Questions We Now Know! ===
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1. If you put down a Signal Source and Abs block onto a canvas and connect them together without changing anything, an error occurs.<br />
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1a. How do we know there is an error?<br />
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1b. How do we figure out what the error is?<br />
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1c. How do we correct the error?
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2. Say that we have two signals in our flowgraph that we wish to multiply together.<br />
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2a. How would we find a block that multiplies signals?<br />
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2b. How do we use the multiply block in GRC?<br />
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2c. What else can we do and change in this block?
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3. If you saw a block had an unused, light gray input port on it, what kind of port would that be?
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4. If you run a flowgraph and see the &quot;AttributeError: 'top_block_sptr' object has no attribute 'top_layout'&quot;, what is wrong and how can you fix it?
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5. Signal processing questions
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* Say we want to process speech audio data, and we have a microphone that won't let any frequencies in higher than 8 kHz. What is the minimum sampling rate we must use?
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* Now we want to digitize a radio signal that goes from 99.9 MHz to 100.1 MHz. How large is the minimum applicable sampling rate?
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6. Answers
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* 16 kHz (2 * 8 kHz)
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* The bandwidth is 200 kHz, so we must sample at least at 400 kHz -- or 200 kHz if we have complex sampling, as we usually do in software radios.<br />
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=== Links to Further Resources ===
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Links that are accessible without knowing much about how GNU Radio interacts with code. Not necessary to proceed.
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* [[TutorialsCoreConcepts|Core Concepts]]
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* [[Hardware|Hardware]]
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[[Category:Guided Tutorials]]
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== Candidates for Future Sections ==
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Possible topics we may want to add in the future depending on feedback and questions on mailing list
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* [[GNURadioCompanion#Hierarchical-Blocks|Hier Blocks Example]\
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* [http://www.trondeau.com/blog/2014/2/27/working-with-grc-busports.html Busports]
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* Samples vs Time, deserves an example but not sure if here on in python
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* Maybe a simpler example like dial tone
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-----
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&lt;. [[Guided_Tutorial_Introduction|Previous: Introduction]]
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&gt;. [[Guided_Tutorial_GNU_Radio_in_Python|Next: Programming GNU Radio in Python]]
  
Sampling rate is an interesting subject in GNU Radio -- and, indeed, any software radio platform. Please see the [[Sample_Rate_Tutorial|Sample rate tutorial]].
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[[Category:Guided Tutorials]]

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