# Editing IQ Complex Tutorial

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Up to now we have been dealing with real signals. The need for complex signals appears in the next step. Simulation requires sampled signal. Sampling is the operation of observing a continuous signal and taking a finite number of samples at a given sampling rate ''f<sub>s</sub>'' (i.e. one sample each 1/''f<sub>s</sub>'' second). Because a simulator can only make calculations on a finite number of samples, it requires a sampled signal. Nyquist Sampling theorem states that the sampling rate must be greater than twice the maximum frequency ''F<sub>Max</sub>'' in order to reconstruct the original signal from the sampled signal. | Up to now we have been dealing with real signals. The need for complex signals appears in the next step. Simulation requires sampled signal. Sampling is the operation of observing a continuous signal and taking a finite number of samples at a given sampling rate ''f<sub>s</sub>'' (i.e. one sample each 1/''f<sub>s</sub>'' second). Because a simulator can only make calculations on a finite number of samples, it requires a sampled signal. Nyquist Sampling theorem states that the sampling rate must be greater than twice the maximum frequency ''F<sub>Max</sub>'' in order to reconstruct the original signal from the sampled signal. | ||

: <math>f_s > | : <math>f_s > F_{Max}</math> | ||

For a HiFi audio signal, the maximum audio frequency <math>F_{Max Audio}</math> is close to 20 kHz, so the sampling rate must be higher than 40 kHz (44.1 kHz is often used in computer sound cards, 8 kHz is used for mobile phones since voice has a lower frequency range than HiFi audio). Β | For a HiFi audio signal, the maximum audio frequency <math>F_{Max Audio}</math> is close to 20 kHz, so the sampling rate must be higher than 40 kHz (44.1 kHz is often used in computer sound cards, 8 kHz is used for mobile phones since voice has a lower frequency range than HiFi audio). Β |