Streams and Vectors

From GNU Radio
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Beginner Tutorials

Introducing GNU Radio

  1. What is GNU Radio?
  2. Installing GNU Radio
  3. Your First Flowgraph

Flowgraph Fundamentals

  1. Python Variables in GRC
  2. Variables in Flowgraphs
  3. Runtime Updating Variables
  4. Signal Data Types
  5. Converting Data Types
  6. Packing Bits
  7. Streams and Vectors
  8. Hier Blocks and Parameters

Creating and Modifying Python Blocks

  1. Creating Your First Block
  2. Python Block With Vectors
  3. Python Block Message Passing
  4. Python Block Tags

DSP Blocks

  1. Low Pass Filter Example
  2. Designing Filter Taps
  3. Sample Rate Change

This tutorial describes the differences between a Stream and a Vector.

The previous tutorial, Packing Bits, describes how to pack a stream of bits into the byte or char data type, and then unpack them back into a stream of bits. The next tutorial, Hier Blocks and Parameters, demonstrates how to create a Hierarchical Block and using Parameters.

Streams[edit]

Blocks in GNU Radio can be connected using either streams or vectors. A stream carries 1 sample for each time instance. A stream produces serialized data. A stream must have a data type, such as Float 32 or Byte.

The Signal Source block produces a Complex Float 32 stream. The output of the block at each time instance contains 1 complex sample:

SignalSourceStreamExample.png

The figure shows there is a single complex sample at each time instance.

Vectors[edit]

Vectors carry multiple samples per time instance. Vectors representing data in parallel. A stream represents a scalar at each time instance. A vector represents an array at each time instance.

GRC uses lighter colors to represent streams and darker colors to represent vector outputs:

StreamVectorDarkerColors.png

Streams to Vector Flowgraph Example[edit]

The following example describes how to convert a stream to a vector and back to a stream. Two complex sinusoid streams are converted to a 2-element vector, displayed, and then converted back to their two independent streams.

Add two Signal Source blocks to the workspace:

TwoSignalSourceBlocks.png


Edit the parameters of the second Signal Source to have a frequency of 100 and amplitude of 0.1 to distinguish it visually from the first Signal Source:

ChangeFrequencyAmplitudeSignalSource.png

Click OK to accept the parameters.

Search for the Streams to Vector block, drag it into the workspace and connect it to the Signal Source blocks:

ConnectStreamsToVector.png

The Streams to Vector block acts as an interleaver. The Streams to Vector block takes a sample from the in0 port and places it into the first element in the output vector. The Streams to Vector block takes a sample from the in1 port and places it into the second element in the output vector. The Streams to Vector block combines two serial stream inputs into a two-dimensional vector output.

Search for the Vector to Stream block and add three QT GUI Time Sink blocks to the flowgraph:

InterleavedSignalSourceWithTimeSinks.png

The Vector to Stream block will serialize the vector into a stream. The samples at the output of Vector to Stream will be interleaved.


Edit the titles for the three QT GUI Time Sink blocks so the can be distinguished from one another. First, edit the block connected to the Signal Source with frequency 1000 and amplitude 1 to have the title Signal Source A:

TimeSinkAProperty.png

SignalSourceATimeSink.png


Now edit the QT GUI Time Sink connected to the second Signal Source with frequency 100 and Amplitude 0.1 to have the title Signal Source B:

TimeSinkBProperty.png

SignalSourceBTimeSink.png


Finally, edit the QT GUI Time Sink connected to the Vector to Stream block to have the title Interleaved Signal Sources:

TimeSinkInterleavedProperty.png

InterleavedSignalSourceTimeSink.png


Running the flowgraph displays three time sinks, Signal Source A, Signal Source B, and Interleaved Signal Sources. The Interleaved Signal Sources time sink displays interleaved samples from Signal Source A and Signal Source B:

TimeSinkSignalSources.png

Vector to Streams Flowgraph Example[edit]

The following example deinterleaves (or serializes) the vectorized data, converting it back into two streams.

Search for the Vector to Streams block, add it to the workspace, and connect it to the Streams to Vector block:

AddVectorToStreamsBlock.png


The Vector to Streams block deserializes vector samples and converts them into streams, performing the inverse operation to the Streams to Vector block.

Right-click and delete the arrows connecting the two Signal Source blocks to the QT GUI Time Sink blocks:

DeleteTimeSinks.png


Move and reconnect the two QT GUI Time Sink blocks to the Vector to Streams outputs:

ReconnectedTimeSinks.png


Run the flowgraph. The vectorized samples have been separated back into two streams:

DeserializedTimeSink.png


The next tutorial, Hier Blocks and Parameters, demonstrates how to create a Hierarchical Block and use Parameters.